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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation

Left-sided heart failure leads to fluid accumulation in the lungs and has an increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). The left ventricular end diastolic volume(LVEDV) can either be increased or normal. When it is increased and the end systolic volume is also increased, this indicates systolic dysfunction. When the LVEDV is normal or the ejection fraction is normal, this indicates diastolic dysfunction.

Reminder:Ejection fraction = Stroke Volume/End Diastolic VolumeStroke Volume = End Diastolic Volume – End Systolic Volume

Diastolic Heart Failure
Failure to relax and fill normally, has a normal ejection fraction
Causes: Chronic hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis, coronary disease,

Left-sided heart failure leads to fluid accumulation in the lungs and has an increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). The left ventricular end diastolic volume(LVEDV) can either be increased or normal. When it is increased and the end systolic volume is also increased, this indicates systolic dysfunction. When the LVEDV is normal or the ejection fraction is normal, this indicates diastolic dysfunction.

Reminder:
Ejection fraction = Stroke Volume/End Diastolic Volume
Stroke Volume = End Diastolic Volume – End Systolic Volume

Diastolic Heart Failure

Failure to relax and fill normally, has a normal ejection fraction

Causes: Chronic hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis, coronary disease,

Left-sided heart failure leads to fluid accumulation in the lungs and has an increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). The left ventricular end diastolic volume(LVEDV) can either be increased or normal. When it is increased and the end systolic volume is also increased, this indicates systolic dysfunction. When the LVEDV is normal or the ejection fraction is normal, this indicates diastolic dysfunction.

Reminder:Ejection fraction = Stroke Volume/End Diastolic VolumeStroke Volume = End Diastolic Volume – End Systolic Volume

Systolic Heart Failure
The inability to expel sufficient blood, has a decreased ejection fraction. You might feel a displaced apical impulse or hear an S3.
Causes: Decreased contractility (ischemia, MI, chronic mitral regurg), Increased afterload (aortic stenosis, hypertensive crisis)

Left-sided heart failure leads to fluid accumulation in the lungs and has an increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). The left ventricular end diastolic volume(LVEDV) can either be increased or normal. When it is increased and the end systolic volume is also increased, this indicates systolic dysfunction. When the LVEDV is normal or the ejection fraction is normal, this indicates diastolic dysfunction.

Reminder:
Ejection fraction = Stroke Volume/End Diastolic Volume
Stroke Volume = End Diastolic Volume – End Systolic Volume

Systolic Heart Failure

The inability to expel sufficient blood, has a decreased ejection fraction. You might feel a displaced apical impulse or hear an S3.

Causes: Decreased contractility (ischemia, MI, chronic mitral regurg), Increased afterload (aortic stenosis, hypertensive crisis)

Heart Failure  :

Diagnosis, Definition, and Risk Stratification

What is Heart Failure?

Heart failure is a complex cardiovascular disorder with a variety of etiologies and heterogeneity with respect to the clinical presentation of the patient. It is significantly increasing in prevalence with an aging population and is associated with high short- and long-term mortality rate.

Significance of Heart Failure

  • Heart failure is the only cardiovascular disease with increasing prevalence.
  • Over 80% of patients diagnosed and treated for acute heart failure in the
    emergency department are readmitted within the forthcoming year, incurring costly treatments and therapies.1
  • In patients over 65 years old, heart failure is both the most common hospital diagnosis and the most costly Medicare diagnosis.
  • The prognosis for a patient with heart failure is worse than for most cancers.

http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/articles/features/heart-failure/

Drugs called loop diuretics — also called “water pills” — help remove excess fluid, but also flush potassium, a mineral, out of the body.

"For the heart failure population, diuretics are a common and necessary part of a patient’s daily regimen," said Dr. Tara Narula, associate director of the Cardiac Care Unit at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. "Unfortunately they come with the common side effect of potassium depletion, which can lead to dangerous heart rhythm disturbances."

Because of that, many doctors prescribe potassium supplements to heart failure patients taking diuretics. According to the authors of the new study, theirs is the first to examine the survival benefits of potassium supplements in this group of patients.

image

See more:

http://www.drugs.com/news/potassium-supplements-may-help-some-heart-failure-patients-52390.html

Diet and Exercise

See more:

http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/benefit-to-improving-diet-and-exercise-at-the-same-time-201304266126

Nuts for protein

See more:

http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/extra-protein-is-a-decent-dietary-choice-but-dont-overdo-it-201305016145